CLI LAND CAPABILITY OF THE FREDERICTON MAP SHEET AREA, 21G
The Canada Land Inventory provides one of the most comprehensive digital map source for resource planning and management in Canada. The area covered by the CLI is indicated in the index map. For each of the map sheets areas land capability is mapped at 1:250'000 scale and usually at a 1:50'000 scale. This is an example for Map sheet 21G Fredericton, New Brunswick. The index map on the right shows the areas mapped for land capability under the CLI. The left image shows an example of a number of overlays displayed on Google Earth.
Each of the 1.250'000 scale maps has an extensive description of the landscape ecosystem and capability perspectives. Below is an example for the Fredericton map area.
Table of Contents
FISH AND WILDLIFE
SETTLEMENT AND LAND USE
LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR RECREATION
FOREST ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS
The Fredericton map sheet area is situated in southwestern New Brunswick. The topography ranges from rugged in the southeastern part, with the elevation rarely exceeding 1200 feet, to rolling over the remainder of the area, with the elevation decreasing from west to northeast. The entire area was glaciated during the Pleistocene Period and, as a result, about 90 percent of the parent material of the soil is glacial till. The remainder consists of water-deposited material of glacial and post glacial age. Kames, eskers, and outwashes occur throughout the area. These deposits are mainly very coarse textured and several feet deep.
Along the Bay of Fundy coast, marine deposits of clay occur up to 200 feet above sea level. These marine deposits can be broken into two classes, the olive brown and the red. The olive brown is found in the St. Stephen district and results from eroded slate. The red, found near Saint John and Musquash, is derived from red carboniferous formations. The bottomland of the Saint John Valley consists of recently deposited alluvial material. Silt is deposited annually over the floodplain during the spring and fall freshets. Nearly half of the area is drained by the Saint John River and its tributaries. The remainder of the area is drained by numerous streams that empty into the Bay of Fundy. The most extensive of these is the Magaguadavic River system.
The main economic resources in the area are agriculture and forest industries. The population is centered along the Saint John Valley and the Bay of Fundy coast. Saint John and Fredericton are the main centers in the area. Fredericton is the capital of New Brunswick and Saint John is the largest city in the province.
Although the climate of New Brunswick is continental In nature, with prevailing
westerly winds, this area is affected by elevation above sea level
and the proximity of the land to the salt water of the Bay of Fundy.
The effects of the ocean water are most noticeable during warm weather,
when a sea breeze, generated by the cool waters of the Bay of Fundy,
blows inland. The mean daily temperatures in July range from 620F to
660F, giving rise to a normally pleasant climate condition for outdoor
recreation. The mean daily temperatures in January, which range from
140F to 220F, coupled with an average snowfall of 71 to 97 inches,
provide good conditions for winterbased outdoor activities. However,
frequent warm spells reduce the amount of accumulated snow, and, in
localized areas, is a limiting factor for winterbased activities.
The soils of the area belong to the Podzolic Order. The upland soils are acid, low in essential plant nutrients, and coarse in texture. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) occupy the hilltops and ridges. Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), white spruce (Picea glauca), red spruce (P. rubens), and white pine (Pinus strobus) predominate on the valley tills, and white pine, balsam fir, and black spruce (P. mariana) predominate on the sandy outwashes. The soils of the lowlands around the Oromocto River are heavy textured; consequently, drainage is poor except on the slopes where bedrock is close to the surface. Balsam fir eastern hemlock, red maple (Acer rubrum), red spruce, and yellow birch (Betula lutea) are prevalent on the better-drained sites. On the poorly drained sites, black spruce, red spruce, balsam fir, and eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) occur. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana) and moose (Alces Alces) are common throughout the area. The area has long been a stronghold for deer and in recent years moose have been increasing in numbers. The large number of lakes and ponds add to the excellent moose habitat.
The area is classified for both deer and moose. There are several potentially good lands for deer. The southwestern border of New Brunswick provides some of the best deer habitat in the province. The lands around Oromocto Lake and along the Saint John Valley also have good capability. The best lands for moose are along the Oromocto River and St. Croix River systems.
The most common limitation of the lands in the area is lack of fertility, which adversely affects the quality of the food species. Excessive moisture and shallow soils add to the problem of poor food quality.
The winters are generally not severe. Over much of the area, deer can range widely throughout the winter. Many small, loosely knit groups are common Accessibility is a problem in the interior.
Descriptive narrative prepared by T. Munroe and W. H. Prescott.
The most common species of fish are Speckled Trout, Land-locked Salmon, Smallmouth Bass and Striped Bass.
Wildlife occurs throughout the area, and generally offers both fair viewing and hunting. Waterfowl commonly using the area both for breeding grounds and flyways are Black Ducks, Wood Ducks, Blue- and Green-winged Teal, Ringnecked Ducks, American Goldeneye (whistlers), and Canada Geese.
Major species of upland game animals and birds include White-tailed Deer, Moose, Woodcock and grouse. Other birds, such as hawks, share birds, wading birds, warblers, flycatchers, finches, grosbeaks, etc., can be viewed during their spring and fall migration on the Atlantic flyway.
Throughout the region are found many historical points of interest dating from both Indian and early European settlements; some of these are Indian canoe routes, Indian burial grounds, old sawmills and churches.
The patterns of early white settlement applicable to this map sheet date back to the latter half of the 17th century, and developed initially along coast accessible river valleys. These patterns are evident supplimented by the mare recent establishment of small farm units further inland. Primary industries throughout the region are forestry, fishing and agriculture, while minor industries include blueberry cultivation and shipbuilding.
In the Fredericton map sheet area, fishing, waterfowling and canoeing are widespread. The Mactaquac Power Development Head Pond on the Saint John River extends for approximately 65 miles, having an undeveloped potential for intensive water-based activities. The mouths of the rivers meeting this water body offer sheltered areas for boat moorings and cottage developments. Grand Lake, Long Reach, Kennebecasis Bay and Grand Bay are popular water bodies providing many opportunities for water-skiing, boating, swimming, bathing, cruising, angling, and viewing of waterfowl.
A large percentage of the upland of the Fredericton map area is classed as 6 and 7, and offers a low potential for extensive upland recreational use. Most river valleys provide excellent viewing in all seasons, and fall colours provide a picturesque scene, particularly in the river valleys. The drive along the Saint John River Valley provides an attractive panorama containing foliage colour, water scenery, a variety of land forms, cultural patterns, and man-made features. In addition, the Bay of Fundy coast line offers frequent opportunities for the viewing and collecting of specimens of rock formations.
Capability classification by D. J. Archibald.
The soils of the Carleton section are primarily shaly loams, many of which contain calcareous rock fragments. Palaeozoic shales, slates, and metamorphic bedrock form the substrata. In the eastern lowlands, soils vary from heavy clays to sandy loams derived from a substrata of sandstones, shales, mudstones, and conglomerates of Carboniferous age. Surface materials of the southern uplands are variable-textured glacial drift: the sandy, stony, and clay loams developed on a substrata of Precambrian and Palaeozoic age intruded by granite. The soils of all three sections normally have a podzol profile.
forests of the Carleton section and southern uplands section are predominantly declduous. In the eastern lowlands, forests are primarily coniferous. Important species in the three regions are: sugar maple (Acer sacchorvm), yellow birch Isetulo luteol, red maple (A. rubrum), white birch (B. papyriferal, balsam flr (Abies balsameal, red spruce (Piceo rubens), white ash (Fraxinvs americana), red oak (Qvercus rubral, white spruce (F. glauca), aspen (Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata), eastern cedar (Thuia occidentalir), and white elm (Ulmus americana).
Along the extensive floodplain of the lower Saint John River valley, butternut (Juglans cinereo), basswood (Tilio americana), ironwood (Ostryo virginicrnal, bur oak (Q, mocrocorpa), silver maple (A. saccharinum), and red arh (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) occur.
Three main groups of aquatic plant communities are present in the wetlands of this area. The first community exists in the salt marshes surrounding the Musquash River and Lorneville Harbour, near the city of Saint John. Primary plant species are the cord grasses (Spartina alterniflora and S, patens), samphire (Salicornia europaea), blackrush (Juncus Gerardi), seaside plantain (Plantago juncoides), sea lavender (Limonium carolinionum), and widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima). Most of those plants are important waterfowl foods. They occur in alkaline water.
The second group of plant communities occurs primarily in the wetlands of the Saint John and Oromocto river system. Plant species include wild rice (Zinzania sp.), pondweeds (Potamogeton spp., Najas spp.), duck-potato (Sagittaria spp.), burreed (Sparganium spp.), pickerelweed (Pontederia spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), waterlilier (Nymphaea spp. and Nuphor spp.), bladderwort (Utricularia spp.), coontail (Cerotophyllum spp), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemna spp.), and wild celery (Vallisneria sp.). These aquatics are present in vigorous stands and provide both food and cover for waterfowl. Waters range from slightly acidic to alkaline.
The third group of communities includes the plants in the wetlands in the remainder of the interior. Aquatic plants have a limited distribution in the deeper lakes and fast-flowing streams; however, in some of the mare suitable wetlands, fairly lush aquatic growth is present. Plants include pickerelweed, spike ruth (Eleachoris spp.), true rush (Juncus spp.), burreed, water lilies, pondweed, cattail (Typha spp.), bladderwort, pipewort(Eriacoulon sp.), and bulrush. When a vigorous growth is achieved, these plant communities provide food and cover for waterfowl. They occur in waters that are acidic.
The main kinds of waterfowl that breed the area are blue-winged teel, black ducks, green-winged teal, wood ducks, ring-necked ducks,and common goldeneyes. During the migration reasons, Canada geese, greater and lesser scaup, Atlantic brant. and common elders an well as other sea ducks are present.
The wetlands In the Carleton section are predominantly deep lakes or small streams. The lakes are of Class 5 and 6 and are limited by depth and infertility. The streams are Class 4, 5, and 6. Those of Class 4 are associated with beaver flowages or marshy shores. The streams are limited by low fertility, steep topography, and poor marsh distribution. Some black ducks, ring-necked ducks, and green-winged teal are produced. There are no important migration areas, and waterfowl are seldom hunted in the region.
The eastern lowlands contain some of the best waterfowl habitat in the Maritime Provinces. Large numbers of blue-winged teal, block ducks, greenwinged teal, ring-necked ducks, and wood ducks are produced. The marshes of the Saint John and Oromocto river systems are Class 2, 3, 3M, 4, and 5. A limiting factor for the Class 2 and 3 wetlands is flooding during the spring nesting season. However, flooding is very important to the continued productivity of the river systems. The fertile soils on which the wetlands occur are a direct result of the alluvial material deposited during spring floods. The floods also fill many depressions, and the water remains long enough to allow broods to be produced.
The Class 4 and 5 wetlands are limited by permeable soils, unsuitable topography, low fertility, and flooding. During the migration searons the 3M and 3S areas are used by several thousand Canada geese as well or black ducks, greater and lesser scaup, and goldeneyer. The lowland arear are hunted extensively by local residents and to a lesser extent by non-residsnts.
The southern uplands include the wetlands of the lower Saint John River, the wetlands of the Boy of Fundy coast, and a large number of lakes and streams in the interior. Most of the lower Saint John River is Class 3M or are the wetlands along the Fundy coast. During migration, they are used extensively by Canada geese, Atlantic brant, greater and lesser scaup, and goldeneyes is well as by many sea duck. Some hunting, by local residents, occurs in the 3M wetlands.
The wetlands of the interior are Class 5 and 6. Waterfowl breeding densities are low throughout the region. Primary limiting factors are infertility, steep topography, and excessive water depth. Waterfowl are seldom hunted in the interior.
Capability classification by D. G. Dennis and A. J. Doberslein, Canadian Wildlife Service.
The climate of the area is humid temperate. The annual precipitation is 41 inches, 16 to 20 inches of which falls during May through September. The mean annual temperature averages 410F, and the frost-free period is 100 days in the central part of thee area and 160 days along the coast. The number of growing degree-days above 420 F between May and September averages 2750, except along the Bay of Fundy Coast where it is 2500. The average annual potential evapotranspiration is 21.4 inches at McAdam.
Climate was assumed to be the limiting factor on all Class 3 land and probably affects the forestry capability of the entire area. Exposure is an important limitation near the coast and on the higher hills.
The area includes parts of the Carleton, Eastern Lowlands Fundy Coast, and Southern Upland sections of the Acadia Forest Region. The central part of the area is predominantly mixedwood forest, with coniferous forest located to the east and deciduous forest to the west. On the hilltops and well-drained upper slopes with deep soil, sugar maple, beech, and yellow birch form pure hardwood stands. On the mid slopes, mixed wood stands of these same species occur with red maple, white birch, balsam fir, red spruce, and hemlock. Conifers often form pure stands on the lower slopes and flat lands.
On the coarse-textured soils over glaciofluvial deposits red pine, white pine, balsam fir, red spruce, and white spruce form softwood stands. White spruce is also the predominant species in abandoned fields. Mixed wood stands of white pine, red maple, yellow birch, white birch, sugar maple, balsam fir, red spruce, and white spruce occur on the well-drained sites. On the poorly drained sites, black spruce and tamarack are the main species and eastern white cedar occurs on some of the less acid soils. The western edge of the area is characterized by deciduous forest. Sugar maple, beech, yellow birch, and red and white ash are the most important hardwood species. On the steep slopes the conifers are mare prevalent, with balsam fir and white spruce being the most common species.
Along the Bay of Fundy coast immediately adjacent to the share is a poor-quality forest composed of white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, and tamarack. Balsam fir and black spruce make up most of the forest stands. Shallow soils and exposure are the main limitations. On the hilltops and north-facing slopes the tolerant hardwoods are prominent. Poor-quality black spruce occurs on the lands with impeded drainage. Hemlock eastern white cedar, and pines are usually not present in this area.
Capability classification by D. M. MacFarlane, under the direction of B. M. Smith, forests Blanch, New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, 1968. Assistance from the Maritime Section, Department of Fisheries and forestry, and the Soils Survey Unit Canada Department of Agriculture Fredericton, New Brunswick, is gratefully acknowledged.